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Berikut adalah lanjutan studi praktis tentang terjemahan delapan hadits dari Empat Puluh An-Nawawi, dari Bahasa Arab ke Bahasa Inggris. Kali ini telah sampai pada hadits kedua.

5.1.2 Hadis No. 2

الحديث الثاني : بيان الإسلام والإيمان  والإحسان

عن عمر- رضي الله عنه- أيضا قال :

“بينما نحن جلوس مع رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم- ذات يوم إذ طلع علينا رجل شديد بياض الثياب شديد سواد الشعر، لا يرى عليه أثر السفر، ولا يعرفه منا أحد، حتى جلس إلى النبي- صلى الله عليه وسلم- فأسند ركبتيه إلى ركبتيه، ووضع كفيه على فخديه و قال: يا محمد أخبرني عن الإسلام. فقال رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم- : ” الإسلام أن تشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأن محمدا رسول الله، وتقيم الصلاة، وتؤتي الزكاة، وتصوم رمضان، وتحج البيت إن استطعت إليه سبيلا” قال: صدقت. فعجبنا له يسأله ويصدقه، قال: فأخبرني عن الإيمان قال: أن تؤمن بالله، وملائكته، و كتبه، و رسله، واليوم الآخر وتؤمن بالقدر خيره وشره قال: صدقت. قال: فأخبرني عن الإحسان. قال: أن تعبد الله كأنك تراه، فإن لم تكن تراه فإنه يراك، قال: فأخبرني عن الساعة. قال: ما المسؤول عنها بأعلم من السائل. قال: فأخبرني عن أماراتها. قال: أن تلد الأَمة ربتها، وأن ترى الحفاة العراة العالة رعاء الشاء يتطاولون في البنيان. ثم انطلق فلبثت مليا، ثم قال: يا عمر أتدري من السائل؟ قلت: الله ورسوله أعلم. قال: فإنه جبريل أتاكم يعلمكم دينكم” –  
رواه مسلم

Hadits Kedua

Bangunan Islam, Iman, dan Ihsan

I. Terjemahan Pertama

Also on the authority of Umar t who said:

One the day while we were sitting with the messenger of Allah r there appeared before us a man whose clothes were exceedingly white and whose hair was exceedingly black; no signs of journeying were to be seen on him and none of us knew him. He walked up and sat down by the prophet r. Resting his knees against his Knees and placing the palms of his hands on his thighs, he said: O Muhammad, tell me about Islam. The Messenger of Allah r said: Islam is to testify that there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, to perform the prayers, to pay the Zakat, to fast in Ramadan, and too make the pilgrimage to the House if you are able to do so. He said: You have spoken rightly, and we were amazed at him asking him and saying that he had spoken rightly. He said: Then tell me about Iman. He said: It is to believe in Allah, His angels, His books, His messengers, and the Last Day, and to believe in divine destiny, both the good and the evil thereof. He said: You have spoken rightly. He said: Then tell me about Ihsan. He said: It is to worship Allah as though you are seeing Him, and while you see Him not yet  truly He see you. He said: Then tell me about the Hour. He said: The one questioned about it knows no better than the questioner. He said: Then tell me about its signs. He said: That the slave-girl will give birth to her mistress and that you will see the barefooted, naked, destitute herdsmen competing in constructing lofty buildings. Then he took himself off and I stayed for a time. Then he said: O Umar, do you know who the questioner was? I said: Allah and His Messenger know best. He said: It was Gebriel, who came to you to teach your religion.” It was related by Muslim.

II. Terjemahan Kedua

Also on the authority of Umar, radiyallah anhu who said:

“While we were one day sitting with the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu alayhi wasallam, there appeared before us a man dressed in extremely white clothes and 
with very black hair. No traces of journeying were visible on him, and none of us knew him.

He sat down close by the prophet, sallallahu alayhi wasallam, rested his knee against his thighs, and said, O Muhammad! Inform me about Islam. “Said the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu alayhi wasallam, Islam is that you should testify that there is no deity save Allah and that Muhammad is His Messenger, that you should perform salah (ritual prayer), pay Zakah, fast during Ramadan, and perform Hajj (pilgrimage) to the House (the Ka’bah at Makkah), if you can find a way to it (or find the means for making the journey to it). ” said he (the man), ” you can truly.”

We were astonished at his thus questioning him and telling him that he was right, but he went on to say, “Inform me about iman (faith).” He (the Messenger of Allah) answered, ” It is that you believe in Allah and His angels and His Books  and His Messengers and in the Last Day, and in fate (qadar), both in its good and its evil aspects. ” He said, ” You have spoken truly.”

Then he (the man) said, “Inform me about Ihsan. “He (the Messenger of Allah) answered, “It is that you should serve Allah as though you could see Him, for though you cannot see Him yet He sees you.” He said ” Inform me about the Hour.” He ( the Messenger of Allah) said, ” About that the one questioned knows no more than the questioner.” So he said, “Well, inform me about the signs thereof (i.e. of its coming).” Said he, ” They are that the slave-girl will give birth to her mistress, that you will see the barefooted ones, the naked, the destitute, the herdsmen of the sheep (competing with each other) in raising lofty buildings.” Thereupon the man went off.

I waited a while, and then he ( the Messenger of Allah) said, ” O Umar, do you know who that the questioner was?” I replied, ” Allah and His Messenger know better.” He said, ” That was Jibril. He came to teach you your religion.” [Muslim]

Terjemahan Ketiga

Also on the authority of Umar, who said: One day while we were sitting with the Messenger of Allah there appeared before us a man whose clothes were exceedingly white and whose hair was exceedingly black; no signs of journeying were to be seen on him and none of  us knew him. He walked up and sat down by the prophet. Resting his knees against his and placing the palms of his hands on his thighs, he said: ” O Muhammad, tell me about Islam”. The Messenger of Allah said: ” Islam is to testify that there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, to perform the prayers , to pay the zakat, to fast in Ramadan, and to make pilgrimage to the House you are able to do so”. He said: ” You have spoken rightly” , and we were amazed at him asking him and saying that he had spoken rightly. He said: ” Then tell me about eman”. He said: ” It is to believe in Allah, His angels, His books, His Messengers, and the Last Day, and to believe in divine destiny, both the good and the evil thereof “. He said you have spoken rightly”. He said: ” Then tell me about ehsan”. He said: ” It is to worship Allah as though you are seeing Him, and while you see Him not yet truly He sees you”. He said: ” Then tell me about the Hour”. He said: ” The one questioned about it knows no better than the questioner “. He said: ” Then tell me about its signs.” He said: ” That the slave-girl will give birth to her mistress and that you will see the barefooted, naked, destitute herdsmen competing in constructing lofty buildings.” Then he took himself off and I stayed for a time. Then he said: ” O Omar, do you know who the questioner was? ” I said: “Allah and His messenger know best”. He said: “He was Jebreel (Gabriel), who came to you to teach you your religion.” Narrated by Muslim.

Analisis

Dalam terjemahan pertama, penerjemah memulai dengan kata (also); yaitu menunjukkan keberadaan hadits lain yang disebutkan sebelum hadits ini; yaitu hadits kedua dari kompilasi hadits An-Nawawi ini. Penerjemah menggunakan cara dan gaya yang dapat membuat hadits ini diterjemahkan tidak dengan semestinya, misalnya, ia menulis kata (messenger) dalam huruf-huruf kecil, meskipun kata ini merujuk pada Nabi Muhammad, salam sejahtera bagi-nya. Juga, kata ganti his dalam dua frase his tighs dan his knees. Dia juga membiarkan frasa صلى الله عليه وسلم tidak diterjemahkan, meskipun frasa ini mungkin tidak jelas untuk pembaca non-Arab. 

Beberapa kata dalam hadits ini seperti زكاة , إيمان , إحسان , dll. Adalah istilah agama yang ditransliterasikan ke dalam Zakat, Iman, Ihsan, masing-masing tanpa ilustrasi dalam Bahasa Inggris. Selain itu, penerjemah di sini juga tidak menggunakan tanda baca dengan sempurna. Para peneliti melihat bahwa terjemahan ini menggunakan kata-kata yang sudah dikenal yang membantu pembaca memahami makna hadits yang dimaksud, seperti menggunakan kata god alih-alih kata lain yang digunakan dalam banyak agama. Dalam kalimat terakhir, penerjemah menggunakan kata best alih-alih better yang berarti Allah dan Rasul-Nya (salam sejahtera baginya) paling tahu, dan tidak ada perbandingan antara mereka (yaitu Allah, Rasul, dan manusia).

Dalam terjemahan kedua, penerjemah mulai dengan kata yang sama (also) bahwa kompilasi hadis An-Nawawi ini telah pasti dalam penyajiannya. Penerjemah ini menerjemahkan beberapa kata dalam hadits ini yang mungkin tidak dipahami dengan baik, misalnya kalimat: (peace and Blessing be Upon Him) diterjemahkan sesuai dengan pengucapannya (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) yang ia terjemahkan dengan cara literal. Dia menulis kata (Messenger) dalam huruf kapital, sementara dia tidak menulis beberapa kata ganti dalam huruf kapital bahwa mereka kembali ke Nabi Muhammad (salam sejahtera baginya).

Dalam terjemahan ini, penerjemah tidak menerjemahkan beberapa kalimat dalam hadits, meskipun kata-kata ini penting dan tidak dipahami dalam konteks. Ia menjelaskan beberapa kata keagamaan, seperti Salah (ritual prayers), Hajj (pilgrimage), dan juga House yang memiliki makna (Ka’bah).

Penerjemah ini menggunakan penerjemahan literal yang dalam kalimat: ( فقال الرسول ) ia tidak berkonsentrasi pada aturan bahasa target untuk pertukaran subjek di tempat kata kerja. Dia juga menggunakan kata hubung (and) seperti dalam bahasa sumber (Bahasa Arab), seperti dalam kalimat: Allah and His angels and His books and His Messenger, dll. Penerjemah di sini menggunakan kata (better) daripada kata (best).

Dalam terjemahan ketiga, penerjemah memulai sebagaimana dua terjemahan sebelumnya. Kami memerhatikan bahwa ia tidak menerjemahkan kalimat: (May Peace and Blessing be Upon Him), meskipun itu adalah bagian dari hadits. Dia menggunakan dalam menerjemahkan kata-kata akrab proses, dan juga menggunakan tanda baca. Di sini, dia tidak menjelaskan kata-kata keagamaan untuk ilustrasi. Dia tidak menggunakan huruf kapital untuk kata ganti yang mengacu ke Nabi Muhammad (salam sejahtera baginya). Terjemahan ini mirip dengan terjemahan pertama dalam menggunakan kata-kata, dan cara terjemahan itu sendiri lebih dari yang kedua.

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